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工业

小麦如何合理施肥?(2)

[12月9日,2020年]

(1)增加了有机肥白的应用,提高肥料效率,综合使用化肥和有机肥料可以将小麦产量增加到2至3千克/千克纯氮。虽然单独使用化肥的许多高产麦田,但由于过度使用化肥,经济效益很低,易于引起土壤硬化,物理和化学性质的恶化。只有通过添加有机肥料,加速土壤肥力,施加相同量的化肥才能大大提高小麦产量。(2)平衡式施肥氮,磷和钾必须组合施用。基于稳定应用氮肥,适当增加磷和钾肥。合理且均衡的施肥,确保追肥和基肥是合适的,并根据不同的土壤素质确定基肥和追肥的施用比。一般来说,桑迪壤土和轻壤土麦田的施用比为3:7;中壤土和重壤土麦田的施用比例为4:6;轻粘土土壤和重型粘土土壤的施用比为5:5。同时,注意各种微量元素的应用。 (3) Determine the best fertilization method according to different production levels In low-yield wheat fields, a simple fertilization method of applying plantar fertilizer once can be used. For high-yield wheat fields, the best fertilization time is the jointing period. High-yield wheat fields generally do not chase back green manure, because increased application of green manure will cause the population to be too large and fall down. However, the top-dressing of high-yield wheat fields should not be too much or too late, in order to prevent greed and late maturing. (4) The effect of spraying fertilizer on leaves is good Foliar spray can be applied at the booting stage of wheat. Use 150 grams of urea and 150 grams of potassium dihydrogen phosphate per mu with 60 grams of water in a sunny and windless afternoon. (5) Adopt different fertilization schemes for different wheat fields: ① High- and middle-yield wheat fields: High-yield wheat fields have high soil fertility levels and good production conditions. The input of nitrogen fertilizer is too large, but the input of potassium fertilizer is relatively insufficient. In fertilization, the input of organic fertilizer should be increased, and the straw returning to the field should be fully implemented. According to the principles of nitrogen control, phosphorus stabilization, potassium increase, and micro-replenishment, high-yield wheat fields (above 500 kg/mu) should be applied with 4 cubic meters of organic fertilizer and pure nitrogen ( N) 14~17 kg, phosphorus (P2O5) 8~10 kg, potassium (K2O) 8~10 kg; phosphate fertilizer is applied at the same time, nitrogen fertilizer is applied at the bottom of 30%, 60% topdressing at jointing stage, 10% of wheat booting Topdressing at the jointing stage, 70% bottom application of potassium fertilizer and 30% topdressing at the jointing stage. Apply organic fertilizer 3.5 cubic meters per mu, pure nitrogen (N) 12-15 kilograms, phosphorus (P2O5) 7-8 kilograms, potassium (K2O) 5-8 kilograms per mu; fertilization method is 40% bottom application of nitrogen fertilizer, 60% of jointing stage Topdressing, 70% bottom application of potassium fertilizer, 30% topdressing at jointing stage, and bottom application of phosphate fertilizer once. For the application of micro-fertilizer, zinc sulfate or manganese sulfate can be used to dress seeds, with 2 to 4 grams of fertilizer per kilogram of seeds. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate was sprayed in the middle and late stages of wheat growth to increase the thousand-grain weight of wheat. ②Late sowing wheat field: In the late sowing wheat field, due to the late stubble, the delay after sowing and the insufficient accumulated temperature before winter, heavy fertilizer is required to promote seedlings to achieve the purpose of strong seedlings before winter and rapid transformation in spring. Apply organic fertilizer more than 3 cubic meters, pure nitrogen (N) 14-15 kilograms, potassium (K2O) 6-7 kilograms, phosphorus (P2O5) 8-9 kilograms per mu for high-yield fields; apply organic fertilizer more than three cubic meters per mu, pure nitrogen (N) ) 12-14 kg, phosphorus (P2O5) 6-7 kg, potassium (K2O) 5-6 kg. Fertilization methods are 40%-50% nitrogen fertilizer applied at the bottom, 60%-50% topdressing at the jointing stage, and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer applied at the same time. Targeted foliar spraying of multiple micro-fertilizers in the middle and late stages. In addition, in the wheat-cotton intercropping area, the potassium consumption can be increased appropriately.